An Introduction on Sustainability Issue of Twentieth Century Critical Theories (Formalism, Constructivism, Post Constructivism)

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Professor, Production Faculty, IRIB University (Corresponding Autour).

2 Assistant Professor, Production Faculty, IRIB University.


Literature and criticism were enhanced and developed during the 20th century, in addition to the remarkable advancement of technology and the multiplicity of inventions and discoveries in scientific fields. The upsurge of current literary theory has become something of significant phenomenon in contemporary literature, emerging as formidable force in interdisciplinary subjects. “Literary theory” is the body of ideas and methods we use in the practical reading of literature. By literary theory we refer not to the meaning of a literary work, but to the theories that reveal what literature can make sense. Literary theory is a description of the underlying principles, one might say the tools, by which we attempt to understand literature. All literary interpretation draws on a basis in theory but can serve as a justification for very different kinds of critical activity. The theory of literature has been changed during 20th century and presented new criteria. Such criteria have been changed constantly and very quickly. This study tries to examine and criticize such theories and to what extent they are permanent or temporary. There has been an essential question whether critical literature theories are able to present themselves in logic structure? Therefore, this paper has applied three literature theories such as formalism, constructivism, and post constructivism by using descriptive and analytic approach as mythology.


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