عنوان مقاله [English]
Since the advent of Iranian cinema, numerous films have been made and recognized as Kolah Makhmali films. Those film could survive through different eras of Iranian cinema by intentional usage of various elements of popular culture. It has attracted common –and sometimes elite- audiences and fiscally propelled Iranian cinema. In this research, explanation of national cinema production and rejection of cultural elitism are based on the ideas of Erwin Panofsky on three stratas of subject matter and the difference between iconography and iconology. Although Panofsky’s method of analyzing images was limited to visual arts in the beginning, its convincing power caught eyes of other forms of art critics. Under the influence of iconography concept, his followers in cinema believe that a true understanding of film only can be achieved by knowledge of the themes which are always considered as common knowledge for ordinary audiences. This research also studies the usage of those ideas on iconographical approach in film studies. The evolution of Kolah Makhmali films has been explained by its iconographical and iconological elements. Three stratas of meaning have been explained in this genre, then it shows how these films could be analyzed as national cinema and they have a substantial position in national film studies. These films have a historical awareness of audience’s interest and they use visual elements of popular culture and also have a conceptual approach toward the gentlemanhood and chivalry rituals and culture.